NYS Attorney General Issues Guidance on Preventing & Correcting Sexual Harassment in the Workplace

On December 6, 2017, amidst the recent barrage of publicized sexual harassment and sexual assault allegations made against various news organizations, politicians, and Hollywood elite, New York State Attorney General Eric T. Schneiderman released “Know Your Rights” guidance on sexual harassment in the workplace.  The purpose of the guidance is to inform New Yorkers about the laws that protect them from sexual harassment at work and to provide victims of sexual harassment with information on the appropriate agencies to consult should they seek to file a complaint or take legal action, along with helplines for further support.  The guidance highlights the following:

Sexual Harassment Defined – Sexual harassment occurs when unwelcome conduct of a sexual nature is used as the basis for making employment decisions, like hiring or firing, or is so frequent or severe that it creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive work environment.

  • The conduct can be verbal, visual and/or physical, such as unsolicited sexual advances, sexually offensive remarks or jokes, comments about a person’s gender or sexual orientation or preferences, unwanted touching, and sexually suggestive gestures.
  • Sexual harassment can be committed by a supervisor, co-worker, or third-party vendor/customer/client who comes into the workplace.
  • Protections apply to both men and women, and same sex harassment is prohibited, regardless of sexual orientation.

Avenues of Relief – Laws prohibiting sexual harassment include Title VII of the Civil Rights Act (“Title VII”), the New York State Human Rights Law (“NYSHRL”), and the New York City Human Rights Law (“NYCHRL”).  The scope and procedure for filing complaints differ under each law.

  • Those who feel they have been the victim of, or who have observed sexual harassment should first report it to his/her employer pursuant to the employer’s internal policies. Individuals may also consult an attorney to determine whether to file a complaint with a government agency or a lawsuit in state or federal court.
  • Agencies who handle sexual harassment complaints include the New York State Office of the Attorney General Civil Rights Bureau (“OAG”), the New York State Division of Human Rights (“NYSDHR”), and the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (“EEOC”).
    • The OAG represents the People of New York (not the individual complaining party) when it discovers evidence of a pattern, practice, or policy of sexual harassment.
    • The NYSHRL allows individuals to file a complaint against employers of any size with the NYSDHR or proceed directly to court.
    • Sexual harassment complaints under Title VII may only be brought against employers with more than 15 employees and must be filed first with the EEOC before commencing a lawsuit.

No Retaliation – The law also prohibits retaliation against anyone who has filed a complaint about sexual harassment in the workplace.

Criminal Liability – Sexual harassment may constitute a crime, under theories of stalking and/or assault.

Sexual harassment in the workplace is a serious problem that affects many employees and organizations.  As stated by A.G. Schneiderman, “We all have a stake in preventing [sexual harassment] and stopping it when it happens.”  Addressing sexual harassment in the workplace provides a benefit to employees and employers alike.  Employees have a right to feel secure in the workplace, and employers can have liability in situations where harassing behaviors is permitted whether by supervisors, subordinates, peers, customers, vendors, and contractors. Employers can reduce the risks of claims of sexual harassment in the workplace by arming its employees with tools to deal with inappropriate workplace behavior and sexual harassment allegations.  This includes a well-crafted sexual harassment prevention and complaint policy and routine training for managers and supervisors.

For more information about how anti-harassment laws affect your company or how your company can effectively prevent and address complaints of sexual harassment, please contact John C. Petrella, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Employment Litigation Practice Group, at jpetrella@nullgenovaburns.com, or Dina M. Mastellone, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Human Resources Practice Group, at dmastellone@nullgenovaburns.com, or 973-533-0777.

Be Ready For New York State’s Paid Family Leave Law, Effective January 1, 2018

Employers with employees in New York must prepare for New York State’s Paid Family Leave Benefits Law (“PFL”), which will provide job-protected, insurance-based, paid family leave to employees.  PFL goes into effect shortly, on January 1, 2018.

Overview of PFL Benefits

Under PFL, eligible employees will be entitled to:

  • Paid time off for one of three qualifying reasons – Eligible employees will be entitled to a certain amount of time off, during which they will receive a certain percentage of their wages.  However, weekly wages payable under the PFL are capped at one-half of New York State’s Average Weekly Wage, which is currently $1,305.92 (half of which is $652.96).  The program will be fully implemented over a 4-year phase-in schedule:
    • Starting on January 1, 2018, eligible employees will be entitled to take 8 weeks of leave while receiving 50% of their average weekly wages.
    • Starting January 1, 2019, eligible employees will be entitled to take 10 weeks of leave while receiving 55% of their average weekly wages.
    • Starting on January 1, 2020, employees will still only be entitled to take 10 weeks of leave, but will be afforded 60% of their average weekly wages.
    • Finally, starting on January 1, 2021, employees will be entitled to take 12 weeks of leave while receiving 67% of their average weekly wages.
  • Reinstatement – Upon returning to work, eligible employees must be restored to the position they held before taking leave, or to a comparable position with comparable benefits and pay.

Covered Employers

  • Private employers with one or more covered employee will be required to provide PFL benefits.
  • Public employers may opt in.
  • Covered employers whose employees are represented by a union and whose collective bargaining agreement provides paid family leave need only provide PFL benefits if the collective bargaining agreement’s benefits are not as favorable as those under PFL.

Eligible Employees

  • Full-time employees (those with a regular schedule of 20 or more hours per week) become eligible for PFL benefits after working for 26 weeks.
  • Part-time employees (those with a regular schedule of less than 20 hours per week) become eligible for PFL benefits after working for 175 days.

Qualifying Reasons to take Family Leave under PFL

Eligible employees may receive PFL benefits in the following three instances:

  1. To bond with a new child (including newly adopted and foster children);
  2. To care for a close relative with a serious health condition;
    • Close relatives include spouses, domestic partners, children, parents, parents-in-law, grandparents, and grandchildren
    • A serious health condition is an illness, injury, impairment, or physical or mental condition that involves a) inpatient care in a hospital, hospice, or residential health care facility; or b) continuing treatment or continuing supervision by a health care provider.
  3. To relieve family pressures created when a spouse, child, domestic partner or parent is on or has been called to active military duty, and the employee is eligible for time off under the military provisions of the federal Family Medical Leave Act.

Notably, an employee cannot receive PFL benefits to care for his or her own serious health condition or for his or her own qualifying military event.

Interplay with other Leave Benefits

  • Covered employers may permit employees to use sick or vacation leave for full pay, but may not require that employees use such leave.
  • Employees’ PFL leave must run concurrently with qualifying FMLA leave.  This means that employees cannot stack PFL and FMLA leave to take time that exceeds the leave entitlement under the PFL.  Employees cannot receive New York State disability benefits simultaneous with their receipt of PFL benefits.

Tips and Next  Steps for New York City Employers

  • Update the leave provisions of your company’s policies and/or handbooks – it’s required by the PFL!
  • Obtain paid family leave insurance coverage
  • Train your human resources personnel

For questions on compliance with this new law or other employment and hiring requirements, please contact Dina M. Mastellone, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Human Resources Training & Audit Programs Practice Group, at dmastellone@nullgenovaburns.com, or 973-533-0777.

New York City’s Salary Inquiry Ban Starts October 31, 2017

Starting October 31, 2017, New York City employers will be prohibited from inquiring about a job applicant’s salary history, or from relying on that salary history in determining an applicant’s prospective pay, unless the applicant voluntarily offers the information.

What New York City Employers Cannot Do

Under the salary inquiry law, employers cannot, during an in-person interview that takes place in New York City, or in any circumstances where the impact will be felt in New York City:

  • Communicate any question or statement to a job applicant, the applicant’s current or former employer, or a current or former employee who worked with the applicant, to obtain the applicant’s salary history;
  • Search public records to obtain an applicant’s salary history; and/or
  • Rely on an applicant’s salary history when making an offer of employment or deciding compensation, unless the applicant voluntarily and without prompting disclosed it.

What New York City Employers Can Do

New York City employers may consider and verify a job applicant’s salary history if:

  • The job applicant discloses the information voluntarily and without prompting;
  • Law specifically authorizes the disclosure or verification of salary history;
  • The position’s salary is determined by procedures in a collective bargaining agreement;
  • The applicant is a current employee applying for an internal transfer or promotion; and/or
  • A background check for non-salary related information inadvertently discloses salary history, provided, however, that the employer does not rely on that inadvertently disclosed salary history in determining the job applicant’s prospective salary.

The Scope of One’s “Salary History”

  • “Salary history” means current or prior wages, benefits or other compensation.
  • It does not include objective measures of the applicant’s history of productivity. Employers may ask about sales performance or other objective indicators of performance like volume or value, but cannot ask about how these figures translated into wages.
  • Employers may also discuss and consider the applicant’s salary and benefits expectations, including the amount of unvested equity and deferred compensation an applicant would forfeit from his or her current employer.

Consequences of Violating New York City’s Salary Inquiry Ban

The New York City Commission on Human Rights will investigate complaints and enforce the new law by imposing fines of up to $125,000 for unintentional violations, and up to $250,000 for intentional violations.

Tips and Next  Steps for New York City Employers

  • Update Your Company Policies, Job Application Materials, and Interview Guides
  • It is not enough to add a disclaimer that individuals in New York City or applying for jobs located in New York City need not answer questions related to salary history.
  • Develop a process for documenting when an applicant voluntarily discloses his/her salary history.
  • Train your Recruiting and Hiring Personnel
  • Develop a process for documenting the reasons for differentials in pay.

For questions on compliance with this new law or other employment and hiring requirements, please contact Dina M. Mastellone, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Human Resource Training & Audit Practice Group, at dmastellone@nullgenovaburns.com, or 973-533-0777.

Christie Vetoes Expansion of New Jersey Family Leave & Increased Minimum Wage

On July 21, 2017, New Jersey Governor Chris Christie conditionally vetoed two bills that would have expanded New Jersey’s pioneering paid Family Leave Act and raised minimum wage for certain transportation center service workers.  Under the New Jersey Family Leave Act (NJFLA), which applies to New Jersey companies with 50 or more employees, workers are eligible to receive up to 12 weeks of continuous leave during a given 24-month period to care for a newly born or adopted child, parent, a child under 18, spouse, or civil union partner who has a serious health condition requiring in-patient care, continuing medical treatment or medical supervision.  The leave is partially paid, and eligible employees can generally receive up to $633 per week.

The Bill (A4927) would have extended the NJFLA’s coverage to employers with 20 or more employees and expanded the definition of “family member” to include siblings, grandparents, grandchildren and parents-in-law.  Moreover, the Bill would have doubled the maximum number of weeks of family temporary disability leave benefits from 6 weeks to 12 weeks, increased available intermittent leave from 42 days to 84 days, and raised the weekly cap on paid benefits to $932, depending on the claimant’s income.

Governor Christie denounced the Bill’s supporters as disregarding the increased cost to taxpayers and the potentially adverse impact the bill would have on small businesses in New Jersey.

The minimum wage bill (A4870) would have significantly raised New Jersey’s minimum wage for employees at Newark Liberty International Airport, Newark Penn Station, and the Hoboken Terminal, from $10.10 to $17.98 per hour.  Incidentally, Christie vetoed a bill last year that would have raised New Jersey’s minimum wage from its current $8.44 to $15.00 per hour.  The New Jersey Business & Industry Association, considering the vetoes to be a victory to New Jersey employers, stated that the minimum wage bill would have set “a terrible precedent by circumventing the collective bargaining process and imposing backdoor wage and benefit increases by statute.”

For more information on these vetoes and current laws regarding family leave, minimum wage, or other applicable leave laws, please contact John C. Petrella, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Employment Litigation Practice Group, at jpetrella@nullnullgenovaburns.com, or Dina M. Mastellone, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Human Resources Practice Group, at dmastellone@nullnullgenovaburns.com, or 973-533-0777.

New York City Bans Employer Inquiries Into Salary History

On May 4, 2017, New York City Mayor Bill DeBlasio signed a law amending the New York City Human Rights Law, barring all public and private New York City employers from asking job applicants about their prior wages and salary history.  The law will take effect on Tuesday, October 31, 2017. The new law makes it an unlawful, discriminatory practice for an employer to inquire about or rely upon the salary history of a job applicant to determine their salary amount during the hiring process.

The salary inquiry law bans New York City employers from:

  • Making an inquiry, either verbally or in writing, to an applicant and/or the applicant’s current or prior employer, to obtain the applicant’s salary history;
  • Searching public records for an applicant’s salary history; and/or
  • Relying on a job applicant’s salary history when making an offer of employment or extending an employment contract to the applicant.

Salary history is broadly defined in the bill as the applicant’s “current or prior wage, benefits or other compensation.”  However, salary history inquiries do not include inquiries into the objective measure of the applicant’s productivity, for example, through inquiries on revenue, sales, or production reports.  Further, employers may still discuss the applicant’s salary and benefits expectations, including the amount of unvested equity and deferred compensation an applicant would forfeit through resignation from his or her current employment.

The law contains several other exceptions to the prohibition on salary inquiries, which include the following:

  • Employers can consider and verify an applicant’s salary history if the applicant discloses the information voluntarily and without prompting;
  • Where federal, state, or local law specifically authorizes the disclosure or verification of salary history;
  • Where salary is determined by procedures in a collective bargaining agreement;
  • When current employees are transferred or promoted within the company; and
  • When a background check for non-salary related information inadvertently discloses salary history, provided the employer does not rely on that information in making an offer of employment.

The New York City’s Commission on Human Rights (NYCCHR) will be responsible for investigating complaints and enforcing the new law.  The NYCCHR will also have the authority to impose fines ranging from up to $125 for intentional violations and up to $250,000 for intentional malicious violations.

New York City employers must start to update their employment applications and train their recruiters and human resources personnel on the new requirements to ensure compliance by the October 31, 2017 deadline.  Employers may also be forced to limit the scope of their background checks and revise their notices under the Fair Credit Reporting Act.

For questions on this new law, background check laws, or other employment and hiring requirements, please contact Dina M. Mastellone, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Human Resource Training & Audit Practice Group, at dmastellone@nullgenovaburns.com, or 973-533-0777.

New York City Seeks to Ban Employer Inquiries Into Applicants’ Salary History

On April 5, 2017, the New York City Council passed a law amending the New York City Human Rights Law, barring all public and private New York City employers from asking job applicants about their prior wages and salary history.  The bill has been sent to Mayor DeBlasio for signature.  This new proposed law will take effect 180 days after Mayor DeBlasio signs it.

This bill would prohibit New York City employers from:

  • Making an inquiry, either verbally or in writing, to an applicant and/or the applicant’s current or prior employer, to obtain the applicant’s salary history;
  • Searching public records for an applicant’s salary history; and/or
  • Relying on a job applicant’s salary history when making an offer of employment or extending an employment contract to the applicant.

Salary history is broadly defined in the bill as the applicant’s “current or prior wage, benefits or other compensation.”  However, salary history inquiries do not include inquiries into the objective measure of the applicant’s productivity, for example, through inquiries on revenue, sales, or production reports.  Further, employers may still discuss the applicant’s salary and benefits expectations, including the amount of unvested equity and deferred compensation an applicant would forfeit through resignation from his or her current employment.

The bill contains several other exceptions to the prohibition on salary inquiries, which include the following:

  • Employers can consider and verify an applicant’s salary history if the applicant discloses the information voluntarily and without prompting;
  • Where federal, state, or local law specifically authorizes the disclosure or verification of salary history;
  • Where salary is determined by procedures in a collective bargaining agreement;
  • When current employees are transferred or promoted within the company; and
  • When a background check for non-salary related information inadvertently discloses salary history, provided the employer does not rely on that information in making an offer of employment.

The New York City’s Commission on Human Rights (NYCCHR) will be responsible for investigating complaints and enforcing the new law.  The NYCCHR will also have the authority to impose fines ranging from up to $125 for intentional violations and up to $250,000 for intentional malicious violations.

If Mayor DeBlasio signs this law, employers must immediately update their employment applications and train their recruiters and human resources personnel on the new requirements.  Employers may also be forced to limit the scope of their background checks and revise their notices under the Fair Credit Reporting Act.  For questions on this new proposed law, background check laws, or other employment and hiring requirements, please contact John C. Petrella, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Employment Litigation Practice Group, at jpetrella@nullgenovaburns.com, or Dina M. Mastellone, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Human Resources Practice Group, at dmastellone@nullgenovaburns.com, or 973-533-0777.

Two Federal Courts Dismiss ADA Website Accessibility Claims

In the last two months, at least two federal district courts have dismissed website accessibility lawsuits filed against private companies under the Americans with Disabilities Act (“ADA”), proving that this issue continues to be the Achilles Heel of the Department of Justice’s (“DOJ”) Regulatory Arena.

For context, imagine a blind person who is unable to make online mortgage payments because his bank’s website did not provide him the means.  The DOJ is tasked with enforcing the ADA, a federal statute that provides for equal access to places of public accommodation, including private businesses, for such persons with disabilities.  However, the text of the ADA is silent about public accommodations’ websites, and a recent executive order aimed at decreasing federal regulations has all but eliminated any chance that the DOJ will issue regulations on that topic.  The absence of such regulations has emboldened disability advocacy groups across the nation to flood the courts with lawsuits against companies alleging a failure to provide equal access to audio, audiovisual, or other content made available online.

Not so fast, said the U.S. District Court for the Central District of California.  On March 20, 2017, in the case of Robles v. Domino’s Pizza LLC, No. 16-06599, the federal court dismissed ADA web accessibility litigation brought against the enormous food retailer, Domino’s.  The court relied on the “primary jurisdiction doctrine,” which allows courts to dismiss complaints pending the resolution of an issue that is “within the special competence of an administrative agency.”  Noting that Congress has vested exclusive authority with the DOJ to promulgate regulations defining what web accessibility standards to impose on private companies, the court concluded that it was inappropriate to render judgment against Domino’s in the absence of such regulations.

There are various other legal issues that arise in ADA web accessibility cases, including the concept of standing, which means having a concrete injury that can be rectified by a court order, and whether a website is a place of public accommodation.  The U.S. District Court for the Southern District of Florida, in the case of Gomez v. Bang & Olfusen America, Inc., No. 16-23801, shed light on both issues.  The Gomez court dismissed an ADA web accessibility claim brought by a plaintiff who contended that the company’s website could hypothetically impede a blind person from enjoying all the benefits of the company’s retail stores on the basis that the plaintiff did not have a particularized injury (i.e., standing).  As the court concluded, “[h]is generalized grievances are wholly unconnected to any harm he actually suffered at the place of public accommodation (i.e. the concrete, physical store) and are therefore insufficient to survive a motion to dismiss.”  The court also recognized that websites are not included in the ADA’s express list of public accommodations: “If Congress – recognizing that the internet is an integral part of modern society – wishes to amend the ADA to define a website as a place of public accommodation, it may do so.  But the Court, having no legislative power, cannot create law where none exist.”

Although these cases may suggest a shield to ADA web accessibility litigation, there are just as many courts across the country taking completely opposite views.  For example, only one year ago, a Massachusetts federal court rejected the “primary jurisdiction doctrine” (relied upon in Robles) as a basis to dismiss ADA web accessibility claims made against Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  See Nat’l Ass’n of the Deaf, et al., v. Harvard Univ., et al., No. 15-30023; Nat’l Ass’n of the Deaf, et al. v. Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., No. 15-30024.  Given the national split over these issues and the unlikelihood that the DOJ will issue clarifying regulations, businesses should be cautious.

The first step a business should take to minimize the risk of expensive litigation and exhausting DOJ investigations is to designate an ADA coordinator/compliance group to audit its website.  Companies should simultaneously work with counsel so that reports and findings from these audits are generated under privilege.  In addition, companies should adopt strong website accessibility polices and staff training materials.  Moreover, one of the most effective ways to stave off litigation is to provide a customer service, like a hotline, devoted to assisting customers who encounter difficulties in accessing a company’s web content.

Those with questions about these emerging issues or looking for a preliminary assessment of their legal exposure under the ADA should contact John C. Petrella, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Employment Litigation Practice Group, at jpetrella@nullgenovaburns.com, or Brigette N. Eagan, Esq., Counsel with the firm’s Human Resources Practice Group, at beagan@nullgenovaburns.com or 973-533-0777.

 

New York Issues Regulations Implementing its Trailblazing Paid Family Leave Law

Last year, the New York State Legislature passed the country’s most wide-ranging paid family leave law, providing employees with wage replacement during time away from their job in order to bond with a child, care for a close relative with a serious health condition, or to help relieve family pressures when someone is called to active military service, commencing on January 1, 2018.  On February 22, 2017, New York State Governor Andrew M. Cuomo announced the filing of official regulations implementing New York’s Paid Family Leave Law.  The regulations provide important guidance to both employers and insurance carriers.

Covered Employers – Unlike the federal Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), which applies only to businesses with 50 or more employees, the New York paid family leave program is required for all private employers in New York.  Public employers may opt in.

Eligible Employees – Employees become eligible for paid family leave after working full-time for their employer for 26 weeks or part-time for 175 days.

Phase-In Schedule – Unlike the FMLA, which provides 12 weeks of unpaid leave to take care of one’s family member or oneself, New York’s family leave law provides paid leave.  The program starts on January 1, 2018 and will fully phase in over the course of 4 years.  For the first year of the program, employees will be entitled to 8 weeks of family leave and 50% of their average weekly wages.  Starting January 1, 2019, employees will be entitled to 10 weeks and 55% of their average weekly wages.  On January 1, 2020, employees will still only be entitled to 10 weeks, but will be afforded 60% of their average weekly wages.  Finally, starting January 1, 2021, employees will be entitled to 12 weeks and 67% of their average weekly wages.

Qualifying Reasons – Paid family leave will be available to eligible employees to care for a new child (including newly adopted and foster children) or a close relative with a serious health condition, or to relieve family pressures created when a family member is called to active military service.  This leave is not available, however, to care for an employee’s own serious health condition, which is available under the FMLA.

Required Documentation – Employees will be required to present certain documentation to justify requests for family leave.  Documentation may include a certification from a doctor treating an employee’s family member.  New parents will also need to present birth certificates, adoption papers, or foster placement letters.  Employees wishing to address military family needs must provide military duty papers.

Reemployment – Upon return to work, employees will be entitled to resume the same or a comparable job.  The paid family leave law also provides for a continuation of health care benefits while on leave.

Employers’ “To Do” List – There are several steps businesses must take now to ensure compliance with New York’s paid family leave law.  Employers must either purchase a paid family leave insurance policy or self-insure.  The program will be fully funded by employees’ payment of premiums through payroll deductions, which employers can begin taking in July of 2017 (for coverage beginning on January 1, 2018).  In addition, employers and/or carriers must adopt a method for employees to request paid family leave, either by using the official “Request for Paid Family Leave” form (currently form PFL-1) or another method that solicits the same information as that form.  Employers must also inform all employees in writing of their rights and obligations under the new law, and eligibility information must also be included in an Employee Handbook.  Governor Cuomo has also launched a new helpline (844) 337-6303 to answer questions and provide New Yorkers with more information about the new program.

For questions about New York State’s new paid family leave law, how it interacts with the FMLA, and how to develop a compliant paid family leave policy, please contact Dina M. Mastellone, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Human Resources Practice Group, at dmastellone@nullgenovaburns.com or 973-533-0777.  Please visit our free Labor & Employment Blog at www.labor-law-blog.com to stay up-to-date on the latest news and legal developments affecting your workforce.

EEOC Releases 2016 Enforcement Data: Charges Increase, Downward Trend in Litigation & Monetary Recovery, LGBT Charges Highlighted

Each year, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) releases data detailing the charges of workplace discrimination it receives, the number of enforcement suits filed and resolved, and any areas of targeted investigations and compliance initiatives from the prior year.  On January 18, 2017, the EEOC released its Fiscal Year 2016 Enforcement and Litigation Data summarizing its findings.

Rising Number of Discrimination Charges – According to the EEOC, in 2016 it received 91,503 charges of discrimination, making 2016 the second consecutive year that the agency has seen an increase in the number of charges.  2016 also marks the third consecutive year in which retaliation was the most frequently filed charge.  Below is a chart summarizing the EEOC’s breakdown of the categories of charges filed in 2016 along with a comparison to those charges filed in New Jersey and New York:

  National New Jersey New York
Retaliation:  

42,018 (45.9%)

 

731 (1.7% of total Retaliation charges in US)  

1,604 (3.8% of total Retaliation charges in US)

 

Race:  

32,309 (35.3%)

 

624 (1.9% of total Race charges in US)  

1,084 (3.4% of total Race charges in US)

 

Disability:  

28,073 (30,7%)

 

583 (2.1% of total Disability charges in US)  

1,061 (3.8% of total Disability charges in US)

 

Sex:  

26,934 (29.4%)

 

500 (1.9% of total Sex charges in US)  

1,202 (29% of total Sex charges in US)

 

Age:  

20,857 (22.8%)

 

437 (2.1% of total Age charges in US)  

865 (4.1% of total Age charges in US)

 

National

Origin:

9,840 (10.8%)

 

254 (2.6% of total National Origin charges in US)  

601 (6.1% of total National Origin charges in US)

 

Religion:  

3,825 (4.2%)

 

104 (2.7% of total Religion charges in US)  

180 (4.7% of total Religion charges in US)

 

Color:  

3,102 (3.4%)

 

42 (1.4% of total Color charges in US)  

208 (6.7% of total Color charges in US)

 

Equal Pay:  

1,075 (1.2%)

 

Info not available Info not available
Genetic

Information:

 

238 (.3%) Info not available Info not available

Steady Increase in Charges Filed by LGBT Individuals – For the first time, the EEOC included details in its year end summary about sex discrimination charges filed specifically by members of the LGBT community.  In fiscal year 2016, it settled 1,650 of such charges, recovering $4.4 million.  This accounts for roughly 40% of the 4,000 sex discrimination charges filed by LGBT individuals since fiscal year 2013, which indicates a notable, steady rise in the number of charges filed by members of the LGBT community.  Also trending are the issues involving transgendered employees’ restroom rights.  In July 2015, the EEOC ruled that denying an employee equal access to a common restroom corresponding to the employee’s gender identity constitutes sex discrimination violated Title VII of the Civil Rights Act, as does conditioning an employee’s such right on proof that the employee underwent a medical procedure, and/or restricting a transgendered employee to a single-user restroom.

Overall Decrease in Monetary Awards – The EEOC recovered a total of over $482 million in fiscal year 2016, down from the $525 million in 2015, broken down as follows:

  • $347.9 million for private-sector, state, and local government employees through mediation, conciliation, and settlements;
  • $52.2 million through litigations; and
  • $82 million for federal employees.

Downward Trend in Litigation – Over 76% of cases that were referred to mediation in 2016 were resolved successfully, though conciliation had a lower success rate of only 44%.  Litigation by the EEOC is experiencing a downward trend, with only 165 active cases on the EEOC’s docket at the end of 2016, as opposed to the 218 that existed at the end of 2015.  In addition, the EEOC filed only 86 lawsuits alleging discrimination in 2016, down from its 142 filed in 2015 and 133 in 2014.

New Online Charge Status System – The EEOC launched digital services allowing employers and charging parties to receive and file documents electronically, check the status of charges online, and communicate electronically with the EEOC.  These services are intended to streamline the charge process and reduce the number of paper submissions and phone inquiries, easing administrative burdens on the EEOC.  These changes may make it easier not only for the agency to handle more charges and resolve them more quickly, but for complainants to file them.

New ADA Regulations on Employer-Sponsored Wellness Plans – The EEOC issued regulations and interpretive guidance advising that employers may provide limited financial and other incentives in exchange for an employee answering disability-related questions or undergoing medical exams as part of a wellness program.

Employers should review the EEOC’s 2016 charge and enforcement data in order to remain vigilant when responding to complaints of harassment and/or discrimination in the workplace.  The EEOC’s statistics also reinforces the need for employers to train managers, supervisors, and employees on those policies.

For more information on the EEOC’s year-end summary, the EEOC’s strategy for future enforcement of federal employment discrimination statutes, or ways to ensure that your company is in compliance with the EEOC’s mandates, please contact John C. Petrella, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Employment Litigation Practice Group, at jpetrella@nullgenovaburns.com, or Dina M. Mastellone, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Human Resources Practice Group, at dmastellone@nullgenovaburns.com, or 973-533-0777.

Philadelphia Becomes First U.S. City to Prohibit Inquiries into Applicants’ Wage Histories

On January 23, 2017, Philadelphia Mayor Jim Kenney signed into law the “Wage History Ordinance,” which bans all employers doing business in Philadelphia from asking job applicants about their wage histories, subject to a few exceptions. The Ordinance, unanimously passed by the Philadelphia City Council on December 8, 2016, amends Chapter 9-1100 of the Philadelphia Code, the “Fair Practices Ordinance.” The new law, the first for a U.S. city, will take effect on Tuesday, May 23, 2017.

The Wage History Ordinance specifically prohibits employers from the following:

  • To inquire about, require disclosure of, or condition employment or consideration for an interview on the disclosure of a potential employee’s wage history, unless done pursuant to a “federal, state or local law that specifically authorizes the disclosure or verification of wage history for employment purposes;”
  • Determine a potential employee’s wages based upon his/her wage history provided by his/her current or former employer, unless the potential employee “knowingly and willingly” disclosed such information to the prospective employer; and/or
  • Take any adverse action against a potential employee who does not comply with a wage history inquiry (anti-retaliation provision).

For purposes of this Section 9-1131, “to inquire” shall mean to “ask a job applicant in writing or otherwise,” and “wages” shall mean “all earnings of an employee, regardless of whether determined on time, task, piece, commission or other method of calculation and including fringe benefits, wage supplements, or other compensation whether payable by the employer from employer funds or from amounts withheld from the employee’s pay by the employer.”

Notably, the exception allowing wage history inquiries where a law “specifically authorizes” such applies not only when the inquiry is required by law, but when it is merely permitted by law.

The new law also requires a prospective employee who alleges a violation of the Ordinance to file a complaint with the Philadelphia Commission on Human Relations within 300 days of the alleged discriminatory act before he/she may file a civil action in court. Violations of the Ordinance can result in an award of injunctive or other equitable relief, compensatory damages, punitive damages (not to exceed $2,000 per violation), reasonable attorneys’ fees and hearing costs.

Advocates of the legislation, like Philadelphia Councilman Bill Greenlee, have suggested that the Ordinance is aimed at reducing the gender wage gap.  According to the “Findings” section of the Ordinance, women in Pennsylvania are paid 79 cents for every dollar that a man earns.  Amongst minorities, it claims that African-American women are paid 68 cents, Latinas are paid 56 cents, and Asian women are paid 81 cents for every dollar paid to men.  The belief is that, since women have historically been paid less than men, an employer’s knowledge of applicants’ wage histories can perpetuate a cycle of lower salaries.  Advocates profess that the Ordinance forces prospective employers to, instead, set salaries based on an applicant’s experience and the value of the position to the company.

Opponents of the Ordinance, like Rob Wonderling, CEO of the Chamber of Commerce for Greater Philadelphia, denounce it as an unnecessary “hassle” driving businesses away from Philadelphia.  Corporations like Comcast have also threatened costly lawsuits contesting the legality of the Ordinance.

It is recommended that employers review their hiring practices and applications for employment in advance of the Wage History Ordinance’s effective date of May 23, 2017.  Moreover, anyone involved in the hiring and interview process must be trained to ensure compliance with the new law prohibiting inquiries into an applicant’s salary history.

For more information on the Wage History Ordinance, how it may affect your business, or ways to ensure that your company’s hiring documents and policies comply with the Ordinance, please contact John C. Petrella, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Employment Litigation Practice Group, at jpetrella@nullgenovaburns.com, or Dina M. Mastellone, Esq., Chair of the firm’s Human Resources Practice Group, at dmastellone@nullgenovaburns.com, or 973-533-0777.